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An Introduction to Sigmund Freud in His Own Words


Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1909), given at Clark University, Worcester, MA.

Basic Freud. Psychoanalytic Thought for the 21st Century (2002).

Kahn, M. Basic Books, New York, NY


An Interview with Mark Solms on Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience










Research on Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Efficacy


de Maat, S., Philipszoon, F., Schoevers, R., Dekker, J., De Jonghe, F. (2007). Costs and benefits

     of long-term psychoanalytic therapy: Changes in healthcare use and work impairment.

     Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15(6), 289-300.


Etkin, A., Pittenger, C., Polan, H. J., Kandel, E. R., (2005). Toward a neurobiology of 

     psychotherapy: Basic science and clinical applications. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and

     Clinical Neurosciences 17(2), 145-158.


Fonagy, P., Rost, J., McPherson, S., Thomas, R., Pasco Fearon, R. M., et. al. (2015). Pragmatic

     randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-

     resistant depression: The Tavistock adult depression study (TADS). World Psychiatry 14(3),



Glass, R. M. (2008). Psychodynamic psychotherapy and research evidence: Bambi survives

     godzilla? Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 300(13), 1587-1589.


Leischsenring, F., & Rabung, S. (2008). Effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic 

     psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 

     300(13), 1551-1565.


Leichsenring, F., Leweke, F., Klein, S., Steinert, C. (2015). The empirical status of

     psychodynamic psychotherapy - An update: Bambi’s alive and kicking. Psychotherapy and

     Psychosomatics 84, 129-148.


Levy, R., & Ablon, S. J., (Eds.), (2009). Handbook of evidence-based psychodynamic

     psychotherapy: Bridging the gap between science and practice. New York: Humana Press.


Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist 65 (2),



Solms, M. (2018). The scientific standing of psychoanalysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 15 (1),



“In every instance where such a [chemical] imbalance was thought to be found, it was later proved to be false,” J. Glenmullen, Instructor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, in his

book Prozac Backlash, p. 196, (2000), New York: Simon & Schuster.


“The brain is by far the most complex piece of highly excitable matter in the known universe by any measure. We don’t even understand the brain of a worm.” Christof Koch,the chief scientist and president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, explaining some of the challenges involved in artificial intelligence design as quoted in the New York Times October 15, 2018.



© 2011 Jessica B. Londa, Ph.D.

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