An Introduction to Sigmund Freud in His Own Words
Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1909), given at Clark University, Worcester, MA.
An Interview with Mark Solms on Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience
Research on Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Efficacy
Etkin, A., Pittenger, C., Polan, H. J., Kandel, E. R., (2005). Toward a neurobiology of
psychotherapy: Basic science and clinical applications. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and
Clinical Neurosciences 17(2), 145-158.
Fonagy, P., Rost, J., McPherson, S., Thomas, R., Pasco Fearon, R. M., et. al. (2015). Pragmatic
randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-
resistant depression: The Tavistock adult depression study (TADS). World Psychiatry 14(3),
Glass, R. M. (2008). Psychodynamic psychotherapy and research evidence: Bambi survives
godzilla? Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 300(13), 1587-1589.
Leischsenring, F., & Rabung, S. (2008). Effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic
psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA),
Leichsenring, F., Leweke, F., Klein, S., Steinert, C. (2015). The empirical status of
psychodynamic psychotherapy - An update: Bambi’s alive and kicking. Psychotherapy and
Psychosomatics 84, 129-148.
Levy, R., & Ablon, S. J., (Eds.), (2009). Handbook of evidence-based psychodynamic
psychotherapy: Bridging the gap between science and practice. New York: Humana Press.
Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist 65 (2),
Solms, M. (2018). The scientific standing of psychoanalysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 15 (1),
“In every instance where such a [chemical] imbalance was thought to be found, it was later proved to be false,” J. Glenmullen, Instructor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, in his
book Prozac Backlash, p. 196, (2000), New York: Simon & Schuster.
“The brain is by far the most complex piece of highly excitable matter in the known universe by any measure. We don’t even understand the brain of a worm.” Christof Koch,the chief scientist and president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, explaining some of the challenges involved in artificial intelligence design as quoted in the New York Times October 15, 2018.
© 2011 Jessica B. Londa, Ph.D.